There are different routes to retirement. Research on the timing of retirement and type of pension benefit provide information on how working lives have extended and how common various pension benefits are (such as the disability pension or the partial old-age pension).  

During the research program period, we will study retirement by pension benefit and population group, with a special focus on the effects of the 2017 pension reform. In addition to actual retirement, we will review the population’s retirement intentions and the connection between the intended and actual retirement age. We will review the connection between retirement and workplace-level factors, as well as employers’ attitudes to ageing workers and to the retirement ages within the pension system.  

The working life of many ends in retirement on a disability pension. Under this research programme, we will examine disability retirement rates, time-related changes in disability pension application and rejection rates, as well as how the changes differ between various population groups and how they affect the number of persons drawing a disability pension. We will also examine how health, work ability and working conditions affect retirement on a disability pension, measures that support work ability and the process of retirement.