Earnings-related Pension Recipients in Finland (OSF)
This statistics provides an overview of the Finnish earnings-related pension system. The statistics includes the key figures for all new retirees and retired persons on an earnings-related pension in Finland.
The statistics is released once a month. Year-level data is released three times a year. Check the Release Calendar for more detailed information on the release time.
The Monthly statistics includes the most recent data on Finnish earnings-related pension recipients. The statistics include data on a monthly level of pension recipients, average pensions, pension expenditure and new retirees in the earnings-related pension system.
Check the monthly statistical data of earnings-related pension recipients in the graph applications.
- Earnings-related pension recipients
- New retirees on an earnings-related pension
- Earnings-related pension expenditure
Earnings-related pension recipients:
- Number of earnings-related pension recipients
- Average earnings-related pension
- Monthly earnings-related pension expenditure
New retirees on earnings-related pensions:
- Number of new retirees on an earnings-related pension
- New retirees’ average earnings-related pension
Tables in database:
As of the beginning of 2021, survivors’ pensions that amount to 0 euro are no longer included in the statistics. This change affects the number of recipients of survivors’ pensions and the average pension level.
The amount of the paid survivors’ pensions is affected by the surviving spouse’s own earnings-related pension (or calculated accrued pension) and benefits paid based on motor liability and accident insurance. Taking them into consideration can lead to a survivors’ pension of 0 euro.
Majority of recipients of a pension in one’s own right aged 70 or over
Of all persons receiving a pension in one’s own right, 62 per cent were 70 years or older at year-end 2021. The largest age groups were the 65–69-year-olds and the 70–74-year-olds with a combined total of nearly 700,000 earnings-related pension recipients. Around one fifth of all pension recipients were 80 or over.
Men outnumbered women only in the age group 55–64, where they counted for slightly more than half. The share of women in the higher age groups was larger: of pension recipients aged 85–89, around 63 per cent and of those aged 90 or over, slightly more than 70 per cent.
Pensions in one’s own right include pensions received based on work, that is, old-age, disability, part-time and farmers’ special pensions.
(Updated on 30 June 2022)
Number of new retirees on a disability pension declined clearly in 2021
In 2021, a total of 17,500 persons retired from the earnings-related pension system on a disability pension. Of the new retirees, 54 per cent were women and 46 per cent men. The number of new retirees decreased from 2020, when it was 19,100. The main causes of disability were mental and behavioural disorders (33%) and musculoskeletal diseases (32%).
Nearly 60 per cent of the disability pensions were granted as cash rehabilitation benefits and the remaining as disability pensions valid until further notice. In 2021, 84 persons retired on a years-of-service pension.
The disability pension may be awarded either until further notice, as a fixed-term cash rehabilitation benefit or a years-of-service pension. The cash rehabilitation benefit is granted if there is a chance that the person’s work capacity can be restored at least in part through treatment or rehabilitation. The years-of-service pension can be granted to a worker who has turned 63 years and has done work that requires great mental or physical effort for at least 38 years.
A total of 10,100 persons retired on a cash rehabilitation benefit in 2021. Nearly half (46%) of them retired on a disability pension due to mental or behavioural disorders. The second most common reason was musculoskeletal diseases (24%). The shares for all other main disease categories were less than 10 per cent. The most common cause underlying retirement on a disability pension granted until further notice was musculoskeletal diseases (41%). Mental and behavioural disorders were the second most common cause (16%) and diseases of the nervous system the third most common cause (11%).
(Updated on 9 March 2022)
More than 61,000 new retirees on an earnings-related pension both in 2020 and 2021
In 2021, roughly 61,500 persons retired on an earnings-related pension. The amount was nearly the same as in 2020. The majority (44,000 persons) retired on an old-age pension. The number of new retirees on an old-age pension rose by 2,000 (5%) from 2020.
Around 17,500 retired on a disability pension. This was eight per cent less than in 2020. Less than 100 persons retired on a farmers’ special pension in 2021.
As in 2020, new retirees on a partial old-age pension numbered 13,000 persons. Retirees on a partial old-age pension are not considered new retirees in the statistics of the Finnish Centre for Pensions.
The most common age for retirement in 2021 was 63 years. In 2021, more than 21,000 persons retired on an earnings-related pension at age 63. The eligibility age for the old-age pension was 63 years and 9 months. It was reached by those born between 1 April and 31 December 1957.
(Updated on 9 February 2022)
Statistical services provides further information:
Earnings-related pension recipients in Finland
Producer: Finnish Centre for Pensions
Website: Earnings-related pension recipients
Subject area: Social security
Part of the Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Yes
The statistics offers a general overview of all earnings-related pension recipients in Finland.
The statistics includes central data on all earnings-related pension recipients, new retirees on an earnings-related pension and the earnings-related pension expenditure in Finland.
private and public sector, pension benefit, gender and age, pension amount, disease classification ICD-10; regional classification: municipality, province, country of residence
Methods of data collection and source
The data on earnings-related pension recipients, new retirees and earnings-related pension expenditure are based on the pension register.
The regional data presented in the statistics are based on the population data of the Social Insurance Institution of Finland, supplemented with data on earnings-related pensions taxable at source and paid abroad, as reported by the pension providers.
The more restricted statistics Earnings-related Pension Recipients in Finland is released once a month. The more comprehensive statistics Pensioners in Finland is released once a year.
Time of completion or release
The monthly statistics is released by the middle of the following month and the annual statistics in the autumn of the year following the statistical year. For a more detailed schedule, consult the Release Calendar.
The statistics has been produced since 1996. In 2005-2013, the statistics was published under the name Pensioners and Insured in Finland.
The Quality Description of the statistics (section “Coherence and comparability of data”) includes more detailed information on the comparability of the time series.
Social insurance, pension, earnings-related pension, old-age pension, disability pension, disability pension, unemployment pension, farmers’ special pension, part-time pension, partial old-age pension, retirement
Concepts and definitions
In the tables on persons having retired on an earnings-related pension, the age used is the age at the start of the pension. In other tables it is the age at the end of the statistical year.
The average age is the arithmetic mean of the ages. For recipients of an earnings-related pension the age is calculated from the age at the end of the statistical year, and for persons who have retired on an earnings-related pension, from the age when the pension starts.
The median age is the age for the middle-most observation in the data.
Domicile, country of residence, county
The domicile of a person is seen to be the domicile on the last day of the year. For pensions paid abroad, the country of residence is the country of residence on the last day of the statistical year.
Countries of residence are categorized according to the country categorization valid at the end of the statistical year. Counties are classified according to the regional classification in force at the end of the statistical year.
Earnings-related pension expenditure
Earnings-related pension expenditure includes all statutory pensions from the private and public sector paid during the statistical year, as well as voluntary, registered supplementary pensions paid by the employer, but not pensions paid by the municipalities according to the old local government regulations.
Main cause of incapacity
By main cause of incapacity to work is meant the main disease which is the basis of the pension. Although the reason for the disability may sometimes be a significant secondary disease in addition to the main disease, statistics are based solely on the classification of main diseases.
Since 1996, the diagnoses and the corresponding codes are based on the ICD 10 classification of diseases. Disability pensions granted before 1996 are based on the previous ICD 9 classification. The classification is primarily carried out according to the new classification of diseases. The codes according to the old classification have been as closely as possible placed in the correct category in the new classification (see Appendix 1).
New retiree on an earnings-related pension
New retirees receiving a pension based on their own work history are persons whose pension based on their own working career (old-age, disability or special farmer’s pension) has begun during the statistical year. A further requirement is that the new retiree has not received any pension of the aforementioned types for at least two years.
A scheme-based review is always carried out for the scheme in question. If a person has retired from another sector already prior to the statistical year, and is retiring from another sector during the statistical year, he or she is only registered in the latter sector for the statistical year, no longer in the figure of all who have retired. In other words, a person is only entered in figures relating to the whole earnings-related pension scheme in the statistical year during which the first pension begins. The scheme-specific figures of the tables can thus not be added together.
Persons having retired on an old-age pension are persons whose old-age pension started in the statistical year and who have not received a pension of any type in their own right for at least two years. As regards disability pensions and special pensions for farmers, the precondition is that the persons have not received a pension of this type for two years. As regards the different types of disability pension, the precondition is that the persons have not received a disability pension of any type for two years.
Persons retiring on a part-time pension are not considered as all persons having retired on an earnings-related pension. Persons receiving a part-time pension are not included in the figures until the year when their pension is converted to some other pension based on their own work history, usually an old-age pension.
The partial old-age pension, introduced in 2017, is processed in the same way in the statistics as the part-time pension. That means that persons who have retired on a partial old-age pension are not considered new retirees.
The pension benefits in the earnings-related pension scheme are old-age, disability, special farmer’s, part-time, partial old-age and survivors’ pensions. More detailed information about pension types relating to the statistical year (for example basis for granting and age limits) has been presented in the figures for each statistical year in chapter 1.3 Pension benefits.
The tables in the publication include statistical figures covering the whole earnings-related pension scheme as well as figures by pension sector for the private and the public sector. More detailed information about the sectors is presented in the figures for each statistical year in chapter 1.1. General.
Recipients of an earnings-related pension are always included in the sector from which he or she receives at least one pension under survey. If a person receives a pension from both sectors, he or she is included in the figures for both sectors, but only once in the figures for the whole earnings-related pension scheme.
Persons who have retired on an earnings-related pension are registered in the sector-specific numbers, if retirement from the sector in question occurs in the statistical year. A person is registered in the numbers for the whole earnings-related pension scheme only once, in the statistical year during which the first pension begins.
A person insured for earnings-related pension benefits is always included in the figures of the sector in which said person works (and/or receives a pension). If a person is working (and/or receiving a pension) from both sectors, he or she is registered in the figures of both sectors.
Recipient of an earnings-related pension
Persons receiving a pension based on their own work history are those receiving old-age, disability, unemployment, special farmer’s, part-time or partial old-age pension during the last days of the statistical year. All recipients of earnings-related pension includes the aforementioned as well as recipients of survivors’ pensions. The earnings-related pension may be paid simultaneously with several different pension acts and types of pensions.
Size of the earnings-related pension
All monetary amounts given in the statistics are gross monthly pensions. Pension integration may have the effect of reducing an earnings-related pension if a person receives a pension under acts covering specific risks (Motor Liability Insurance Act, Occupational Accidents, Injuries and Diseases Act, Act on Compensation for Military Accidents and Service-Related Illnesses, Act on Compensation for Accidents and Service-Related Illnesses in Crisis Management Duties, Military Injuries Act). The reduction is made to the accrued earnings-related pension. These benefits may be so high that only a small amount or no earnings-related pension is paid out.
The earnings-related pensions of pension recipients and persons who have retired on earnings-related pensions include the euro amounts from both sectors of all pensions based on their work history and which were in payment at the end of the statistical year: old-age, disability, unemployment and farmers’ special pensions. The pensions include the euro amounts of both basic pensions and registered supplementary pensions. If the pensions of new retirees in the statistical year have ended before the end of the statistical year, the pensions include the amounts of all earnings-related pensions in payment when the pension ended.
Recipients of part-time pensions do not simultaneously receive other earnings-related pensions based on their work history. Therefore, the earnings-related pensions of those who receive and those who have retired on a part-time pension include the euro amounts of the part-time pension only.
In addition to the above, the total earnings-related pension includes any survivors’ pension that the pension recipients may receive. The total earnings-related pension is not calculated for those who have retired on an earnings-related pension.
The average earnings-related and total earnings-related pensions are arithmetic means. Tables 5 and 16 also show the median pension. The median
pension is the pension observed at the mid-point of the material, i.e. half of the pension recipients receive a pension that is lower than the median and half receive a pension that is higher.
Social security agreement
An agreement between two countries that regulates the social security of individuals who are mobile between these countries.
Finland has bilateral social security agreements with Australia, Canada, Chile, China, India, Israel, Québec, South Korea and the U.S.A.
Period for which a person receives a social security benefit for which pension accrues. Unpaid periods are, for instance, periods of parental allowances, periods of sickness allowance and unemployment allowance.
Quality description: Earnings-related pension recipients in Finland 2021
The statistics Earnings-related pension recipients in Finland is published by the Finnish Centre for Pensions.
The Act on the Finnish Centre for Pensions states that the responsibilities of the institution include, for example, the compiling of statistics in its field of operation. The production of the statistics at the Finnish Centre for Pensions is handled by the Planning Department.
The statistics Earnings-related pension recipients in Finland is financed by the Finnish Centre for Pensions.
Relevance of statistical information
Statutory pension security in Finland consists primarily of two pension schemes: the earnings-related pension scheme and the national pension scheme. The pensions of the former scheme are based on earnings, while the pensions of the latter scheme are residence-based. Earnings-related pension recipients in Finland provides an overview of pensions paid within the Finnish earnings-related pension scheme.
In the private sector, earnings-related pensions are administered by earnings-related pension insurance companies, industry-wide pension funds and company pension funds. Keva administers most of the public sector pensions. The Finnish Centre for Pensions is the central body of the earnings-related pension scheme. It collects information required for the administration of earnings-related pensions for the purpose of handling the tasks prescribed to it by law.
Earnings-related pension recipients in Finland covers all statutory earnings-related pensions, as well as voluntary registered supplementary pensions financed by the employer. Voluntary non-registered supplementary pensions paid by the employer are not included in the figures of these statistics, nor voluntary pensions paid by the individuals themselves. In addition, the statistics do not include pensions from the national pension scheme and pensions paid based on the following acts:
- Occupational Accidents, Injuries and Diseases Act,
- Motor Liability Insurance Act,
- Act on Compensation for Military Accidents and Service-Related Illnesses,
- Act on Compensation for Accidents and Service-Related Illnesses in Crisis Management Duties, and
- Military Injuries Act.
The statistics contain figures on the number and average pensions of earnings-related pension recipients and new retirees on an earnings-related pension. The statistics also contain information on earnings-related pension expenditure and earnings-related pensions paid abroad.
The main classifier in the statistics is the division of the earnings-related pension scheme into the private and the public sector. In addition, the following classifications are used in the statistics: pension benefit, pension size, gender and age. Disability pensions are classified by disease category (ICD-10). The regional classification for the earnings-related pension expenditure is based on the regions of Finland. Pension recipients abroad are classified by country of residence and country groups.
The concepts and definitions used in the statistics are presented on the website of the statistics.
Correctness and accuracy of data
The data of this statistical publication is based on data in the pension register (composite data). The register contains registered data from pension decisions. The data is used to form pension periods and pensions which are registered in the statistics register. This statistics register forms the basis for pension statistics.
Together with the earnings-related pension providers, the Register Services Department of the Finnish Centre for Pensions is responsible for the contents of the registers, the accessibility, scope, legality and accuracy of the data needed for the implementation of pension provision, as well as for the clarification of error conditions in the contents. Arek Oy, a company jointly owned by the pension providers and the Finnish Centre for Pensions, is responsible for the information technology aspects of the registers.
The regional data presented in the statistics is based on Kela’s population data. It is supplemented based on the country of tax at source for pensions paid abroad, as reported by the pension providers.
Flaws detected in the statistics are immediately corrected on the website. In connection with the correction, information on the content and time of the correction is provided. If the error is substantial, a separate bulletin is issued.
Timeliness and promptness of published data
A restricted version of the statistics Earnings-related pension recipients in Finland is released once a month. A more comprehensive Statistics on Pensioners in Finland is released once a year during the first half of the year following the statistical year. The date of publication of the statistics is presented in the Release Calendar on the website of the Finnish Centre for Pensions.
Coherence and comparability of data
This statistical publication has been produced since 1996. Its time series are mainly comparable from that date. As for the number of earnings-related pension recipients, the time series extends back to the year 1981.
From the beginning, the statistics has covered the numbers of earnings-related pension recipients and new retirees, mean pensions, as well as the pension expenditure of earnings-related pensions. Over the years, the data content of the statistics has been extended.
In 2005—2013, the statistics was published under the name Pensioners and Insured in Finland (Official Statistics of Finland). As of the statistical year 2014, the data is published in two different statistical publications: Earnings-related pension recipients in Finland (OSF) and Persons insured for an earnings-related pension in Finland (OSF).
In 1999, the concept of new retirees was changed. It no longer includes persons retiring on a part-time pension. They are included in the figures for new retirees when they start to receive some other pension that is based on their own working life, usually an old-age pension.
The partial old-age pension, introduced in 2017, is processed in the same way in the statistics as the part-time pension. That means that persons who retired on a partial old-age pension in 2020 are not considered new retirees.
As of the statistical year 2020, survivors’ pensions (the surviving spouse’s pension and orphan’s pension) that amount to 0 euro are no longer included in figures of the annual statistics. In the monthly statistics, the change is made as of the beginning of the statistical year 2021. This change affects the number of recipients of survivors’ pensions and the average pension level.
The amount of the paid survivors’ pensions is affected by the surviving spouse’s own earnings-related pension (or calculated accrued pension) and benefits paid based on motor liability and accident insurance. Taking them into consideration may lead to a survivors’ pension of 0 euro.
Changes in earnings-related pension legislation must be considered when interpreting the statistics.
The statistics use applicable general standard categorizations, for example, by disease (ICD-10) and territory (region, country of residence and country group).
In cooperation with Kela, the Finnish Centre for Pensions produces Statistics on Pensioners in Finland each year. It covers the pensions of both the earnings-related and the national pension schemes. The figures on recipients of an earnings-related pension, new retirees on an earnings-related pension and earnings-related pension expenditure in those statistics are consistent with the figures in these statistics.
Availability and clarity of data
The statistical data is released on the homepage of the statistics, in the statistical database of the Finnish Centre for Pensions and in the publication Earnings-related pensioners in Finland.
A description of the statistics has been presented on the website of the statistics.
For more information on the statistics, contact the statistical service of the Finnish Centre for Pensions.