Pensioners’ income level
Pensioners’ income can be measured by reviewing, for example, average pensions. Average pensions have increased since the earnings-related pension system came into force, as wages have increased and working lives have extended.
Pension levels can also be reviewed by comparing the pension level to the income earned before retirement. This is what is meant by the replacement rate.
When the viewpoint is expanded from pension level to pension recipient’s income, the household size and the structure and form of housing play a great role. A household of two pensioners manages with a lower income than does two pension recipients living alone. Living in owner-occupied housing also tends to be cheaper than living in corresponding rental housing.
Findings from pensioners’ economic wellbeing
We study pensioners’ economic wellbeing and pension adequacy via pensions, income, consumption and perceptions to get as comprehensive a picture of income in retirement as possible.