Areas of research

  • Economic inequality, poverty and deprivation
  • Transfer from education to working life and other transfers in early adulthood
  • Pensioner income


My research focuses on issues relating to the economic inequality and questions relating to income. In particular, I have examined poverty and income support clientele. I often approached the questions I study from a longitudinal and life course perspective and by utilizing register data. My competencies also include the measuring of poverty, deprivation and economic inequality. Overall, I am widely interested in social quantitative research.

Ongoing research projects

  • Working and the young: frequency, background variables and connection to pension accrual

Read more: Ongoing Research Projects.


  • Ilmakunnas, S. & Ilmakunnas, I. (2019) Riittääkö eläke? [Is the pension adequate?] Talous & yhteiskunta 1/2019: 44–51.
  • Ilmakunnas, I. (2019) Economic difficulties during the transition into adulthood in Finland: A register-based study. Turun Yliopiston Julkaisuja – Annales Universitatis Turkuensis Sarja – Ser. B-Osa – Tom. 474 Humaniora.
  • Lorentzen, T. & Bäckman, O. & Ilmakunnas, I. & Kauppinen, T. M. (2019) Pathways to adulthood: Sequences in the school-to-work transition in Finland, Norway and Sweden. Social Indicators Research 141 (3): 1285–1305.
  • Mukkila, S. & Ilmakunnas, I. & Moisio, P. & Saikkonen P. (2019) Köyhyys ja perusturvan riittävyys [Poverty and adequacy of basic security]. In Kestilä, L. & Karvonen, S. (eds.) Suomalaisten hyvinvointi 2018. Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos: Helsinki, 79–93.
  • Tervola, J. & Ilmakunnas, I. & Moisio, P. (2019) Why is the adequacy of Finnish basic social security under special scrutiny by the Council of Europe? A critical review. Research on Finnish Society 12: 67–70.
  • Ilmakunnas, I. & Moisio, P. (2018) Social assistance trajectories among young adults in Finland – What are the determinants of welfare dependency? Social Policy & Administration 53 (5): 693–708.
  • Ilmakunnas, I. (2018) Trigger events and poverty transitions among young adults in Finland after leaving the parental home. Social Science Research 70: 51–54.
  • Ilmakunnas, I. (2018) Risk and Vulnerability in Social Assistance Receipt of young adults in Finland. International Journal of Social Welfare 27 (1): 5–16.
  • Ilmakunnas Ilari & Kestilä Laura & Karvonen S. & Kauppinen T. M. (2017) Elämänkulku terveyssosiologisessa tutkimuksessa [Life cycle in a health sociology study] . In Karvonen, S. & Kestilä, L. & Mäki-Opas, T. (eds.) Terveyssosiologian linjoja. Gaudeamus Helsinki University Press: Helsinki, 76–94.
  • Ilmakunnas, I. & Kauppinen, T. M. & Kestilä, L. (2015) Sosioekonomisten syrjäytymisriskien kasautuminen vuonna 1977 syntyneillä nuorilla aikuisilla [Accumulation of socioeconomic social exclusion risks in young adults born in 1977] . Yhteiskuntapolitiikka 80 (3): 247–262.