Retirement ages in Member States
In the EU15 states, the general retirement age is 65 years. In most new Member States, the retirement age will be raised to the same level over the next decade. Denmark, France, Germany and Spain have decided to raise the retirement age from 65 to 67 years, while the goal is 68 years in Britain and Ireland. For the main part, the changes in retirement ages are scheduled for the 2020s.
In Finland, Cyprus, Denmark, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Slovakia, the retirement age will be linked to the development of the expected life expectancy. In Britain, the retirement age will rise taking life expectancy into account. In the Czech Republic, the retirement age will rise with a fixed increase of two months per year without an upper limit.
Retirement ages in 2050
Linking the retirement age to life expectancy means that the retirement age in Finland will be somewhat higher than 67 years in 2050 according to current projections. By then, the highest retirement age within the OECD area will be in Denmark: 72 years.
Current retirement ages (2018)
The retirement ages and decisions on raising the retirement ages are listed in more detail in the table below. The table lists first the age at which a person can retire on an earnings-related pension, then the age of the national pension (if it is different from the former). Several countries has various early retirement routes which allow for an exit from the labour force before reaching the retirement age. In some countries, it is possible to retire early without any deductions to the pension if the insurance period is long.
|Current general retirement age (2018)||Future retirement age|
|EU||Men/ Women||Retirement age or men/women|
|Austria (AT)||65 / 60 years||65 years (2033)|
|Belgium (BE)||65 years||67 years (2030)|
|Bulgaria (BG)||66 years and 2 months||67 years (2023)|
|Croatia (HR)||65 years / 62 years||67 years (2038) / 65 years (2030); 67 years (2038)|
|Cyprus (CY)||65 years||65+ years (2018)|
|Czech (CZ)||63 years and 4 months / 62 years and 8 months||67 years (2041)|
|Denmark (DK)||67 years; 65* years||67 years (2022); 68+ years (2030)|
|Estonia (EE)||63 years and 6 months||65 years (2026) 65+ (GP 2027)|
|Finland (FI)||63 years 3 months ; 65* years||65+ years (2027)|
|France (FR)||65 years and 9 months||67 years (2022)|
|Germany (DE)||65 years and 7 months||67 (2031)|
|Great Britain (GBR)||65 years||67+ (2028), 68 (2046)|
|Greece (EL)||67 years||67+ years (2021)|
|Hungary (HU)||63 years||65 years (2022)|
|Ireland (IE)||66 years||68 years (2028)|
|Italy (IT)||66 years||67+ years (2022)|
|Latvia (LV)||63 years and 3 months||65 years (2025)|
|Lithuania (LT)||63 years and 8 months / 62 years 4 months||65 years (2026)|
|Luxembourg (LU)||65 years||–|
|Malta (MT)||62 years||65 years (2027)|
|Netherlands (NL)||66 years||67+ years (2022)|
|Poland (PL)||65 years / 60 years||–|
|Portugal (PT)||66 years and 4 months||66+ years (2016)|
|Romania (RO)||65 years / 60 years and 10-11 months||-/63 years (2030)|
|Slovakia (SK)||62 years and 4 months||62+ years (2017)|
|Slovenia (SI)||65 years||–|
|Spain (ES)||65 years and 6 months||67 years (2027)|
|Sweden (SE)||61-67 years; 65 years*||64-69 (GP 2026) ; 66|
|Other countries||Men / Women||Retirement age or men/women|
|Australia||57 years; 65 years and 6 months*||60 years (2024); 67 years (2023)*|
|Canada (CA)||65 years||–|
|Iceland (IS)||67 years||69 years (2018-2029); 70 years (2030-2041)|
|Japan (JP)||62 years / 61 years ; 65 years*||65 years (2025) / 65 years (2030); –|
|Norway (NO)||62-75 years; 67 years*||–|
|Switzerland (CH)||65 years / 64 years||–|
|USA (US)||66 years||67 years (2027)|
* FI, SE, DK, NO, AU and JP: the retirement age of the earnings-related pension has been separated from that of the national pension with a semicolon. GP= Government proposal or plan of equivalent administrative level; + = Retirement age rising along with the increasing life expectancy.
NL: The retirement age will rise by 3-4 months/year. The retirement age will be linked to life expectancy as of the year 2022. The retirement age based on life expectancy will be confirmed five years before the change comes into effect. Thus, the retirement age for 2022 has been confirmed in 2017 and is 67 years and 3 months.
GBR: Women’s retirement age will rise gradually to 65 years by 2019. At that point, the retirement age for men and women will be the same. The retirement age will rise to 67 years by 2028, after which it will be linked to life expectancy. According to the current schedule, the retirement age will rise to 68 years by 2046.
BG: The retirement age will rise for women by 2 months/year and for men by 1 month/year. After 15 years of insured work, a person can retire at age 66 years at the earliest.
IT: In the public sector, women’s retirement age is already 66 years and 7 months. The deviating retirement age of women was harmonised in 2018, and the retirement age is now linked to life expectancy.
AT: Women’s retirement age will be raised gradually (6 months/year) to 65 years from 2024 to 2033.
EL: The retirement age will be linked to life expectancy in 2021.
HR: Women’s retirement age will rise by 3 months/year until it is 65 years in 2030.
CY: Under certain conditions, people can retire on an old-age pension already at age 63.
LV: The retirement age will rise by 3 months every 9 months until it is 65 years in 2025.
LT: The retirement age for men will rise by 2 months/year and for women by 4 months/year until the retirement age for men and women is 65 years in 2026.
MT: The retirement age will rise gradually so that it is 65 years for those born after 1960; 62 years for those born between 1952 and 1955; 63 years for those born between 1956 and 1958; and 64 years for those born between 1959 and 1960.
PL: In October 2017, the retirement age went down to 65 years for men and 60 years for women.
FR: The pension can be drawn without reductions at 62 years in case of a full insurance period (41 years and 6 months).
SE: Flexible retirement age (61-67 years) for earnings-related pensions. The retirement age in the guaranteed pension scheme is 65 years.
DE: The retirement age will rise by 1 month/year and by 2 months/year as of the year 2024.
SK: Currently, having children lowers women’s retirement age by a maximum of five years. The retirement age has been linked to life expectancy as of 2017. The retirement age of women with more than five children will rise to 62 years by 2024.
SI: Women can be granted a pension at age 63 if they have been insured for more than 20 years. In addition, a pension can be granted earlier to both men and women if the insurance period is long. The insurance period limit will rise to 40 years and the retirement age to 60 years by 2020.
FI: Flexible retirement age: 63-68 years. National pension retirement age: 65 years. The retirement age will rise as of those born in 1955 by 3 months/year until it is 65 years (for those born between 1962 and 1964).
DK: National retirement age: 65 years. ATP retirement age: 67 years. The national pension retirement age will rise to 67 years from 2019 to 2022. As of 2030, the retirement age will be linked to life expectancy.
CZ: The retirement age depends on the year of birth. For women, the number of children also affect the retirement age. By 2041, the retirement ages will be harmonised, which means that having children will no longer reduce the retirement age. The retirement age will rise by 2 months/year without an upper limit.
EE: The retirement ages will rise with 3 months/year (for those born between 1954 and 1960). For those born in 1961 or later, the retirement age is 65 years (in 2026).
IS: The retirement age will rise by 3 months/year from 2018 to 2029 and 1 month/year from 2030 to 2041.
NO: Flexible retirement age: 62-75 years. Normal retirement age: 67 years. The pension must be sufficiently high to be allowed to retire under age 67.
US: The retirement age will rise by 2 months/year from 2021 to 2029.
JP: National pension retirement age: 65 years. The earnings-related pension retirement age will rise gradually for both men and women to 65 years from 2013 to 2030.
AU: The superannuation retirement age will rise annually by 1 year until it is 60 years in 2024. The retirement age for the age pension will rise by 6 months every two years until it is 67 years in 2023.