Statistics on insurance for work abroad and posted workers 2018
A more recent publication of this set of statistics is available: Statistics on insurance for work abroad and posted workers
Working abroad still popular
In 2018, the Finnish Centre for Pensions issued more than 12,000 decisions on coverage by Finnish social security laws while working abroad. The number of issued decisions has doubled over the last decade.
A total of 10,862 decisions on coverage by Finnish social security laws were issued in 2018. The majority of the certificates – over 80% – were granted to workers. The share of certificates issued to civil servants was 6% and to self-employed persons 4% of all granted certificates. The share of certificates issued to flight crew, grant recipients and other personnel groups was less than 3% each. Two thirds of the granted certificates were issued for a period of less than one year.
Of the individual countries, the most frequent target countries for posted workers were Sweden, Spain, the USA and Germany. Posted workers always have a Finnish posting employer, and they have been posted abroad for a fixed period of time. Certificates for posted workers are granted to workers working in EU/EEA countries (A1 certificate) and countries with which Finland has a social security agreement. One and the same person can be granted a certificate several times in one year.
Nearly 40% of the certificates granted in 2018 were for work in several countries. The workers who work in several countries may have several different employers in many countries, or they may work regularly for one employer in several countries. The country-specific division does not include certificates granted for work in several countries.
Nearly 80% of all granted certificates were granted to men. The target countries of the certificates differ slightly by gender. For men, the most common target countries were Sweden (1,014), Spain (398) and the USA (392); for women, Spain (233), the USA (179) and Germany (139). Of the countries to which more than 100 certificates were granted, women were in a majority only in Greece (70%).
Of the personnel groups, women were in the majority among the officers and grant recipients. Their share in both groups was 58%.
Quality description: Statistics on insurance for work abroad and posted workers 2018
The statistics on insurance for work abroad and posted workers is published by the Finnish Centre for Pensions.
The Act on the Finnish Centre for Pensions states that the responsibilities of the institution include, for example, the compiling of statistics in its field of operation. The Planning Department at the Finnish Centre for Pensions is in charge of producing the statistics.
The statistics is financed by the Finnish Centre for Pensions.
Relevance of statistical information
The Statistics on insurance for work abroad and posted workers describes the number of workers and other personnel groups posted from Finland to EU and social security agreement countries. The data is based on solutions issued by the Finnish Centre for Pensions regarding the application of Finnish social security laws.
The Finnish Centre for Pensions decides whether an employed person, an official or a self-employed person is to be covered by Finnish social security laws in situations in which, under the EU Regulation on social security, the person can continue to be covered by Finnish social security laws. A person who continues to be covered by Finnish social security laws will be issued an A1 certificate. As a rule, the certificate must be applied for. In certain situations, however, the Finnish Centre for Pensions can issue a decision based on the information it has received, even when the certificate has not been applied for.
The Finnish Centre for Pensions also decides whether a person can be issued a certificate or a decision on coverage under Finnish social security laws based on the social security agreements in force.
The competence to issue the above-described decisions lies solely with the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Hence, the statistics offers a comprehensive overall view of posted workers and other personnel groups posted from Finland to EU and social security agreement countries.
The statistics does not include persons who
- work in EU or social security agreement countries in a local employment relationship, or
- work in other than EU or social security agreement countries.
The same person can be issued a certificate several times in one year, so no direct conclusions can be drawn on how many persons have gone abroad from Finland to EU and social security agreement countries per year.
Based on the statistics, it is also impossible to determine whether the persons are (under labour law) posted workers or whether directives or other regulations on posted workers can be applied to them.
The statistics includes the number of received applications and decisions issued, divided by country and personnel groups. The data is classified according to age, gender and target country.
Correctness and accuracy of data
The data of the statistics is based on the total sample of the decisions issued and applications received by the Finnish Centre for Pensions in each given year. The data has been compiled based on implementation data used within the earnings-related pension system.
Flaws detected in the statistics are immediately corrected on the website. A separate bulletin is issued on significant errors.
Timeliness and promptness of published data
The data in the statistics is released once a year at the beginning of the year following the statistical year. The date of publication of the statistics is presented in the Release Calendar on the website of the Finnish Centre for Pensions.
The data in the statistics is final.
Coherence and comparability of data
The statistics has been released as of the year 2019. The time series has been produced in retrospect as of the statistical year 2005.
The comparability of the time series depends on, among other things, the following amendments:
- The register that the statistics are based on were changed in 2015.
- The number of EU and social security agreement countries has grown.
- The definitions of the personnel groups have changed due to changes to regulations.
- The awareness of the necessity of the certificates has grown. This, for one, has led to a growth in the number of applications for certificates.
The European Commission regularly publishes statistics on the labour force mobility within the EU and on granted A1 certificates. The statistics on the A1 certificates granted by Finland are based on the decisions issued by the Finnish Centre for Pensions. For the main part, they are identical with this statistics.
Availability and clarity of data
The data on the statistics are published annually on the website of the statistics and in the statistical database of the Finnish Centre for Pensions at https://tilastot.etk.fi/.
The description of the statistics is published on the website of the statistics.
The statistical service of the Finnish Centre for Pensions provides additional information about the statistics upon request by e-mail at tilastot(at)etk.fi.