Working in an EU/EEA country or Switzerland

Click the headings below for more information on temporary work in an EU/EEA country or  Switzerland.

Posted employee in an EU Member State

If your Finnish employer has posted you temporarily to another EU/EEA country or Switzerland you can, under certain conditions, be covered by Finnish social security. In that case, you will need an A1 certificate to prove that you are covered by Finnish social security. The Finnish Centre for Pensions grants the certificate.

Your employer can apply for the A1 certificate for a posted employee either electronically or by filling in an online application. The certificate is needed also if you work in two or several EU/EEA countries.

For more details on the conditions of posting an employee abroad, go to

Self-employed in an EU Member State

As a rule, if you are a self-employed person working abroad, you are covered by the social security of the country in which you work as a self-employed person. In that case, you pay your social security contributions to that country, if it so requires. You have the right to the social security benefits under the legislation of the country in which you work as a self-employed person.

If you are temporarily posted to an EU/EEA country or Switzerland as a self-employed person you can, under certain conditions, be covered by Finnish social security and continue to pay your contributions under the Self-employed Persons’ Pensions Act to Finland. In that case, you need an A1 certificate to prove that you are covered by Finnish social security. You must apply for the certificate from the Finnish Centre for Pensions, by filling in and printing out the appropriate online form (2147).

For more information on the conditions for a posted self-employed person, go to

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Grant recipient in an EU Member State

There are no specific rules for grant recipients in EU’s regulation on social security or the social security agreements. When applying these regulations, however, grant recipients are equalled to self-employed persons. Therefore, if you work abroad as a grant recipient, the rules that apply to self-employed persons will also apply to you.

If you wish to be covered by Finnish social security while working abroad, you have to take out insurance under the Farmers’ Pensions Act. You also have to apply for an A1 certificate from the Finnish Centre for Pensions (if you work on a grant in another EU Member State, an EEA country or Switzerland) to prove that you are covered by Finnish social security. With the certificate you can prove to the authorities in the country in which you work that you are entitled to Finnish social security and that your social security contributions are paid to Finland. Fill in and print the form for grant recipients (2147).

For more information on the conditions for posting a grant recipient, go to

As a civil servant in another EU Member State

If you are a civil servant, you are usually covered by the social security of your employer’s domicile country. The legislation of your employer’s home country is applied regardless of in which EU Member State you work, where you live, or what your nationality is.

In Finland, a civil servant is a person who holds a civil service post or is in an employment relationship with an employer whose operations are funded by public funds.

If you are a civil servant posted abroad, you need an A1 certificate to attest that your are covered by Finnish social security. Your employer must apply for the certificate for a civil servant from the Finnish Centre for Pensions. The application can be made online through the electronic application service or by filling in  and printing the online form (2146).

If you work as a civil servant in one Member State and as an employee or a self-employed person in another Member State, you must contact the Finnish Centre for Pensions.

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Sailor in the EU area

If you are a sailor, you are covered by the social security laws of the country under which flag the vessel that you are working on is sailing. If you are working on a vessel that sails under the flag of another EU/EEA country, you are covered by the social security laws of that country, even if you live permanently in Finland.

The rule of the flag does not apply if the country you live in is the same EU/EEA country as the domicile country of the company that pays your wages but you work on a vessel that sails under the flag of another country. In that case, you will be covered by the social security laws of the country in which you live.

Apply for an A1 certificate from the Finnish Centre for Pensions if

  • you work on a vessel that sails under the Finnish flag but you live in another EU/EEA country, or
  • you live in Finland and your wage is paid from Finland, but you work on a ship that sails under the flag of another EU/EEA country.

Contact the Finnish Centre for Pensions to sort out which country’s social security laws apply to you if

  • you work regularly on two vessels that sail under different flags, or
  • in addition to working as a sailor, you are an employee or a self-employed person in Finland or another EU/EEA country.

If you work on a vessel that sails under the flag of another EU/EEA country but you live in Finland, apply for an A1 certificate from the authorities in the country under which flag the vessel sails. You must also notify the Social Security Institution (Kela) of this.

Flight crew in the EU area

If you are a member of a flight crew within the EU/EEA area, your social security will be arranged in the Member State in which your home base is.

The home base of a flight operator’s crew is defined in Council Regulation (EEC) No 3922/91 as the place in which the flight crew regularly begins and ends its shift or a series of consecutive shifts, and in which the flight operator is not, as a rule, in charge of the crew’s accommodation.

The flight operator has to apply for an A1 certificate for a crew member when, for example, the crew member does not live in the country in which the home base is.

 

For more information, contact us (see contact information below).

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